Esta sección la llamaremos por ahora “aprenda inglés técnico con Herbie”
- Panax notoginseng Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in ApoE-Deficient Mice and Inhibits TNF-a-Induced Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Expression and Monocyte Adhesion
Jian-Bo Wan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Jing-Dong Wang, Nan Wang, Cheng-Wei He, Yi-Tao Wang and Jing X. Kang
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China
J. Agric. Food Chem., Publication Date (Web): July 2, 2009
It is widely recognized that atherogenesis is associated with vascular inflammation. Panax notoginseng, a commonly used herb in China, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the antiatherogenic effect of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) was examined in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the antivascular inflammatory effect of PNS on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were also investigated in vitro. PNS, dissolved in drinking water, was administered orally to two treatment groups at dosages of 4.0 and 12.0 mg/day/mouse, respectively. After 8 weeks, atherosclerosis in the entire aortic area was assessed using an en face method. Compared with the control group, both low- and high-dose PNS-treated groups showed a significant decrease in extent of atherosclerotic lesions by 61.4 and 66.2%, respectively (P < 0.01). PNS also notably reduced serum lipid levels. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-a in all groups of apoE-deficient mice were below the detection limit. In vitro studies showed that PNS dose-dependently inhibited monocyte adhesion on activated endothelium, as well as the expression of TNF-a-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In conclusion, PNS has antiatherogenic activity through, at least in part, its lipid-lowering and antivascular inflammatory mechanisms.
- Cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals and functional foods.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Oct 8;56(19):8761-73. Epub 2008 Sep 9.
Chen ZY, Jiao R, Ma KY.
Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, China.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are the major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas high concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and a low ratio of TC to HDL-C are protective against CHD. A relationship between plasma TC and the risk of CHD is well established at concentrations above 240 mg/dL. In addition to the use of three main classes of cholesterol-lowering medications, including HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, and fibrates, a nutritionally balanced diet that reduces saturated fat and cholesterol intake has traditionally been the first goal of dietary therapy in lowering plasma TC. In recent years, nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted much interest as possible alternative therapies for lowering plasma TC, especially for hypercholesterolemia patients, whose blood cholesterol level is marginally high (200-240 mg/dL) but not high enough to warrant the prescription of cholesterol-lowering medications. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on the production, application, efficacy, and mechanisms of popular cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals and functional foods.
Apple Polyphenols and Fibers Attenuate Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice
Sylvain Auclair†, Mathieu Silberberg†, Elyett Gueux, Christine Morand, Andrzej Mazur, Dragan Milenkovic and Augustin Scalbert*
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (14), pp 5558–5563
Atherosclerosis, which is closely linked to nutritional habits, is a major cause of mortality in Western countries. Most of the previous investigations carried out on health effects of apples have been focused on their capacity to lower lipid concentration as well as on their antioxidant effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiatherosclerotic effects of apple polyphenols and fibers. A crude apple polyphenol extract and low-viscosity apple fibers isolated from cider apples were administered separately or in association with the diet of apo E-deficient mice. After 4 months of supplementation, lipemia and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured and atheroslerotic lesions assessed by histomorphometry. Total plasmatic cholesterol and triacylgycerol levels were not affected by supplementation, and hepatic cholesterol level was lower in the group supplemented with both fibers and polyphenols. Uric acid concentrations and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in plasma were reduced in all groups supplemented with polyphenols or fibers. The mean lesion area was reduced by 17, 38, and 38%, respectively, for the polyphenol, fiber, and polyphenol + fiber groups. Apple constituents supplied at nutritional doses therefore limit the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of apo E-deficient mice. On the basis of the results, we hypothesize that apple fibers and polyphenols may play a role in preventing atherosclerosis disease by decreasing uric acid plasma level.
- A Citrus Extract plus Ascorbic Acid Decreases Lipids, Lipid Peroxides, Lipoprotein Oxidative Susceptibility, and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters
Joe A. Vinson,* Sheu-Ju Hu, Sunah Jung, and Ann M. Stanski
Department of Chemistry, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510-4626
J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (4), pp 1453–1459
A citrus extract containing flavonoids and ascorbic acid was used as a supplement to investigate its effect on lipids in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Ascorbic acid or the flavonoids were without effect except that ascorbate did significantly raise HDL. After 1 month of feeding, the citrus extract plus ascorbic acid synergistically caused a significant reduction of 77%, 66%, and 40% in plasma total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL, and triglycerides, respectively, in comparison to the control group. The extract was also a synergistic inhibitor of in vitro cupric ion LDL + VLDL oxidation compared with ascorbic acid or the flavonoids alone. In a second 10-week hamster study, citrus extract plus ascorbate also significantly lowered plasma lipids, lipid peroxides, and ex vivo LDL + VLDL oxidizability vs a control group. Citrus extract plus ascorbate strongly inhibited atherosclerosis, and there was a significant correlation between several indices of oxidative susceptibility and atherosclerosis.
- Garlic Does Not Appear to Lower “Bad” Cholesterol
Extraído de National Research Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
© Steven Foster
A study from Stanford University casts doubt on the effectiveness of garlic to lower LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels in adults with moderately high cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is widely known as “bad cholesterol,” and is believed to be a leading contributor to heart disease.
Christopher Gardner, Ph.D., and colleagues conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial studying whether three different formulations of garlic could lower LDL cholesterol. The study participants were randomly divided into four groups to receive raw garlic, a powdered garlic supplement, an aged extract supplement, or a placebo.
The 169 participants who completed the study had their cholesterol levels checked monthly for the duration of the 6-month trial. None of the formulations of garlic had a statistically significant effect on the LDL cholesterol levels.
The authors caution that these results should not be generalized for all populations or all health effects. An accompanying editorial in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine points out that LDL cholesterol levels are only one factor contributing to heart disease, and that this trial did not investigate garlic’s effects on other risk factors, such as high blood pressure.
Christopher D. Gardner, Larry D. Dawson, Eric Block, et al. Effect of Raw Garlic vs. Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, February 2007
- Study compares year-long effectiveness of four weight-loss plans
The very low carbohydrate diet known as the Atkins diet may contribute to greater weight loss than higher carbohydrate plans without negative effects such as increased cholesterol. Christopher Gardner, Ph.D., and colleagues at Stanford University conducted an NCCAM-funded study of 311 pre-menopausal women, all of whom were overweight or obese. Each woman was randomly assigned to one of four diets. Each of the diets used were selected for their different levels of carbohydrate consumption:
- The Atkins diet is very low in carbohydrate consumption: less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day and increasing to 50 grams per day.
- The Zone diet is designed so that a person’s daily calorie consumption is comprised of 40 percent carbohydrates, 30 percent protein, and 30 percent fat.
- The LEARN diet (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, and Nutrition) instructs participants to get 55 to 60 percent of their calories from carbohydrates, and not more than 10 percent from saturated fat. This diet is based on the USDA food pyramid.
- The Ornish diet’s primary guideline states that participants should not get more than 10 percent of their calories from fat.
Participants in each group received books that accompanied their assigned diet plan, and attended hour-long classes with a registered dietitian once a week for the first 8 weeks. Data on the participants was collected at the beginning of the study, and at 2, 6, and 12 months. The researchers recorded body mass index (BMI); percent body fat; waist-hip ratio; as well as metabolic measures such as, insulin, cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, and blood pressure levels.
The Atkins diet group reported the most weight loss at 12 months with an average loss of 4.7 kilograms, or just over 10 pounds. They also had more favorable overall metabolic effects. Average weight loss across all four groups ranged from 3.5 to 10.4 pounds. The authors note that “even modest reductions in excess weight have clinically significant effects on risk factors such as triglycerides and blood pressure.”
- Christopher D. Gardner, Alexandre Kiazand, and Sofiya Alhassan, et al. “Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors among Overweigh Premenopausal Women. The A to Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association. March 2007.